Study of Plant Cells

1. To develop an understanding about the arrangement of cells.

2. To study about the shape and size of different types of cells.

3. To study the internal organisation of different types of cells.



1. Apparatus: Watch glass, slides, cover slips, forceps, scissors, brush, needle, beaker, blotting paper etc

2. Material: Tradescantia leaf

3. Chemicals: Saffranin, Glycerine


The following observations were made under 10x and 40 x:

  1. They were arranged like honey-comb with stomata scattered at places.

  2. The cells were small and of variable sizes.

  3. Three types of cells were observed- normal epidermal cells, guard cells and subsidiary cells.

  4. The normal epidermal cells were hexagonal in shape.

  5. Two kidney or bean shaped guard cells enclosing a pore called stomatal pore were surrounded by four rectangular subsidiary cells.

  6. Each cell was bounded by a rigid cell wall.

  7. There was a cementing layer called the middle lamella in between the cell wall of two adjoining cells.

  8. Each cell consisted of granular cytoplasm in between cell wall and the nucleus.

  9. The outer boundary of the cytoplasm which was tightly attached to the cell wall is called cell membrane.

  10. Cells like normal epidermal, guard cells contained more than one vacuoles which contained purple pigment called anthrocyanin.

  11. The inner wall of guard cell was thicker than outer wall.

  12. The guard cells contained oval shaped green chloroplasts.

View the Figure for this Practical